licensing and spin-out activities for research-intensive universities and problem-solving activities teaching-led universities). The normative dimension is captured through three distinct variables: (1) average use of TTO at the university level, (2) proportion of staff with managerial experience and (3) importance of business engagement. Technovation, -. Audretsch, D. B., & Lehmann, E. (2006). 25(9), 1025–1037. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, A closer look into strategies and engagements of teaching-led universities is imperative given the recent policy changes in the UK higher education system (see Higher Education Green Paper 2015). Policy and Politics, Journal of Human Resources, 2014), influence their entrepreneurial engagement. Entrepreneurship continuously grows, develops, improves and expands; the change does not stop. 40(1), 69–80. We start by considering how the variables discussed in the previous section correlate with the likelihood of engaging in (a) licensing and spin-outs, and (b) problem-solving activities, by type of university. Siegel, D., Westhead, P., & Wright, M. (2003). We find that a broader range of prior employment experiences spanning large firms, public organisations and charity organisations, to be beneficial involvement in problem-solving activities. 53(3), 587–604. Their celebrity status so well-known around the world, we call them by name. Research Policy, 32(1), 59–82. 8(4), 453–479. Following the institutional logics perspective, these findings indicate that when it comes to making an impact on a local scale, university managers need to pay more attention to “symbolic” elements of institutions (such as meanings attached to the university structures and practices), whereas at a greater geographical scale the impact can be achieved through putting in place the “right” composition of resources. The study includes descriptive analysis on the extent and geography of different types of entrepreneurial engagements, and a decomposition analysis to show whether the differences between research-intensive and teaching-led universities are due to differences in the characteristics of the academics (endowment effects) or differences in the effects of these characteristics on the outcomes (coefficient effects). Disciplinary backgrounds, seniority, prior experience and knowledge as cultural capital in amalgamated form (Karataş-Özkan and Chell 2015) influence academic entrepreneurship. According to the institutional logics perspective (Thornton et al. The effects of colleges and universities on local labour markets’. within 10 miles), the “region” (i.e. The regulative dimension is related to codified rule settings and enforcement at organisational and societal levels. 31(5), 599–603. Wage discrimination: Reduced form and structural estimates. 2005). Similarly, prior university and business experience of academics provides them with cognitive guidance when it comes to entrepreneurial activities. This role is normally associated with broader, less formal, activities and commitments that contribute to the entrepreneurial environment (Klofsten and Jones-Evans 2000), but remain largely overlooked by the literature. Human Relations, 7 PBL — the educational basis at AAU 8 Definition of Entrepreneurship PBL 8 CHAPTER 2: THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP … 2003; Lebeau and Cochrane 2015). 23(3), 257–279. Journal of Technology Transfer, This may result in specific configurations of external activities and their effects across different types of the university and across different locations (see Van Looy et al. In relation to the regulative dimension, the literature on research commercialisation highlights the positive effects of having in place formal mechanisms and structures such as technology transfer offices (TTOs), intellectual property rights protection (IP) and incentive measures (O’Shea et al. Star scientists and institutional transformation: Patterns of invention and innovation in the formation of the biotechnology industry. Entrepreneurial activity and regional competitiveness: evidence from European entrepreneurial university. Oxford: Oxford University Press. There are five specific practices of entrepreneurs both inside and out. Journal of Business Venturing, Entrepreneurship is an Art of Correct Practices As an art, entrepreneurship is closely related to creativity. Review of Economics and Statistics, Cambridge: University Press. where investment in new knowledge is relatively high (Guerrero and Urbano 2014). En savoir plus. Studying choice and change: The intersection of institutional theory and entrepreneurship research. The research project titled “Industry-University Knowledge Exchange: Demand Pull, Supply Push and the Public Space Role of Higher Education Institutions in the UK Regions” was conducted at University of Cambridge and funded by the UK's Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) in collaboration with Scottish Funding Council (SFC), Department for Employment and Learning in Northern Ireland (DEL), Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) and Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW). These networks are crucial in conditioning the social and professional relations of actors through their associated identification or dis-identification (Thompson and Willmott 2016). Entrepreneurial effectiveness of European universities: An empirical assessment of antecedents and trade-offs. Overall, UK-specific studies indicate that TTO departments at UK universities often fail to exert a strong positive influence on the entrepreneurial engagements of universities, even though there is little comparison on whether this applies to both teaching-led and research-intensive universities (Chapple et al. (2013). Blinder, A. S. (1973). Witty Review. 2013). Similarly, if academics in teaching-led institutions could change the configuration of their institutional endowments (e.g. These predispositions are influenced by beliefs about personal gains and losses, which may result from entrepreneurial behaviour, and the impacts may not be entirely about economic profits (Mars and Rios-Aguilar 2010), with other considerations such as reputation, prestige, recognition, ownership and prizes being in place, and often referred to as symbolic capital (Bourdieu 1974; Hagstrom 1966; van Rijnsover et al. Patent citations and the geography of knowledge spillovers: A Reassessment. It is concerned with the process of change, emergence, and creation of business activities. But its core definition is still there. Mian, S. A. 2008). Academics’ start-up intentions and knowledge filters: An individual perspective of the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship. Cochrane, A., & Williams, R. (2013). 17(1), 80–108. After all, most organizations are better equipped to act on opportunities than are new ventures. These data are complemented using institution-level information on financial and logistical support for entrepreneurial activities provided by the UK Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA). Understanding entrepreneurship: Challenging dominant perspectives and theorising entrepreneurship through new post positivist epistemologies. Although proximity to a university with a strong research output can be a significant factor of the economic performance of firms (Audretsch and Lehman 2006), a few studies indicate clear “leaks” in the pipeline between university research and economic success of local industries and firms (Bania et al. In particular, older academics in research-intensive universities appear to play a more significant role in driving entrepreneurial activities. van Rijnsover, F. J., Hessels, L., & Vadeberg, R. L. J. ), Handbook of entrepreneurship research: Disciplinary perspectives (pp. In G. Ritzer (Ed. 2012; Braunerhjelm and Helgesson 2006). See more. Discussion Paper 77, Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation, School of Economics and Political Science, London. Related to this is the academic discourse on the economic and geographical dimensions of university–industry links, which tends to focus on tangible, easy to quantify, knowledge transfer mechanisms such as patenting, licensing and knowledge-intensive spinouts (Agrawal and Henderson 2002; Di Gregorio and Shane 2003; Thompson and Fox-Kean 2005). As we look at the old myths of entrepreneurs starting new businesses as well as the more traditional, structural initiatives often labeled corporate entrepreneurship or intrapreneurship, it appears—and many have argued—that these forms of entrepreneurship are radically different. Research Policy, Small Business Economics, A more radical definition of EM is that it considers that EM is a total integration of marketing and entrepreneurship “the construct of EM is not simply the nexus between the sets of marketing and entrepreneurial processes that have emerged as the conventional conceptualisation of EM but fully includes all aspects of AM (administrative marketing) and entrepreneurship” (Morrish, … Department of Land Economy, University of Cambridge, 19 Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EP, UK, Southampton Business School, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK, Pelin Demirel, Vadim Grinevich & Mine Karataş-Özkan, You can also search for this author in In terms of the regulative structure, teaching-led universities are more likely to enforce IP for outputs in the arts and have a TTO department while research-intensive institutions are more likely to enforce IP for inventions. This result is further confirmed in the findings highlighting the significant role of senior academics (proxied by the “professor” variable) for driving both types of entrepreneurial engagement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Entrepreneurship requires many skills, from financial planning to human resource management, and it’s at times both intimidating and frustrating. Impact of entrepreneurial activities, at a greater geographical scale, is contingent upon reconfiguration of resources and repetitive practices. 6 concludes. This aligns with the arguments of Voronov and Yorks (2015), who have highlighted the nature of such institutional arrangements being imprinted in individual and institutional logics, and internalised in the form of durable dispositions. Academic entrepreneurship: University spinoffs and wealth creation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. For more information please see our Privacy Statement. The normative pillar pertains to university cultures, departmental cultures (differences between STEM and non-STEM departments for example), and their surrounding contexts, which may facilitate or inhibit entrepreneurship. We specifically address the calls of institutional theory scholars to provide more evidence on the interplay between the micro-individual and meso-structural dynamics in institutional theory. The emphasis here is on normative rules that introduce prescriptive, evaluative and obligatory dimension into institutional and social life (Scott 2014). The rigid and bureaucratic IP regulations practiced by TTOs are often perceived by academics in research-intensive universities as a constraint on the avenues of engagement with external partners (Audretsch 2014). Academy of Management Review, Thus far the social creation of entrepreneurial futures and entrepreneurial growth has involved our entrepreneurs in networking processes and practices of being liberated and inspired, and of envisioning and articulating the projected future of the habitus, largely through conversation. (2009) for further details. The five practices of those entrepreneuring inside and out can help us figure out what leaders of large organizations need to do to build stronger entrepreneurial organization. by Unre Visagie. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, The increasing and pro-active engagement of the university with non-academic partners, networks and institutions is interpreted as a natural development of the university mission to address the demands of a modern knowledge-based economy and entrepreneurial society (Etzkowitz 2003; Audretsch 2014). 117(519), 114–141. Entrepreneurial practices in research-intensive and teaching-led universities. Lockett, A., Siegel, D., Wright, M., & Ensley, M. D. (2005). Dietz, J. S., & Bozeman, B. 93(23), 12709–12716. All rights reserved. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material. The outcomes of the entrepreneurial university manifest themselves through diverse entrepreneurial practices of its individual members (Ding and Choi 2001; D’Este and Patel 2007; Kirby et al. In a 2001 publication on Youth Entrepreneurship, the term was equated with self-employment: “… an entrepreneur is anyone who works … 2014). Amongst important normative influences can be “role models” (Krueger et al. 2013; Creed et al. By applying this reasoning in the entrepreneurial university context, we suggest: Cognitive influences exert a strong effect on the entrepreneurial engagement of research-intensive and teaching-led universities. Entrepreneurship has been seen as a phenomenon allowing economic development, job creation, increased productivity and innovation, but many studies do not include the causes of these events. 40(4), 533–564. 31(6), 937–951. Karataş-Özkan, M., & Chell, E. (2015). 2011), we argue that the phenomenon of the entrepreneurial university is a heterogeneous concept and can no longer be limited to the context of research-intensive institutions only. Geographical classification is built on self-declared information on whether the non-academic partner organisation is located in the “local area” (i.e. 2013; Witty Review 2013). In S. A. Alvarez, R. Agarwal, & O. Sorenson (Eds. Second, we embed our analysis within the institutional theory discourse, which is increasingly used in qualitative studies on entrepreneurship but often proves challenging to operationalise in large-scale quantitative empirical studies due to limited data availability. Third mission involves knowledge exchange in its broader sense, including commercialisation of research, university–industry partnerships, and all related enterprise engagements. outside of the region, but within the UK), or “internationally” (i.e. First, they join a tribe. Browse all issues of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. Brookings: Washington D.C. Thompson, P., & Fox-Kean, M. (2005). Through our decomposition analysis we reveal that differences in behavioural responses (or actions) dominate problem-solving activities at low levels of geography (i.e. 2005; Manolova et al. O’Shea, R., Allen, T. J., Chevalier, A., & Roche, F. (2005). The purpose of this study is to investigate the antecedents to entrepreneurial behaviour with particular attention to social (experience and education), societal (economic and political climate), and personality factors. Based on the world-renowned Babson Entrepreneurship program, this new text emphasizes practice and learning through action. This pillar underscores importance of understanding motivation for, or resistance to, behavioural and institutional change (Foss and Gibson 2015) towards academic entrepreneurship. 43(5), 994–1003. 39, 275–301. 2007). In keeping with our conceptual framework, the explanatory variables are subdivided into three categories: regulative, normative and cognitive dimensions. The biotechnology industry, with corresponding data sources, is provided in Table 8! Practices as an art of correct practices or ways of carrying out entrepreneurial activities more... Entrepreneurial engagements at both types of logics are in operation in defining constituents... On the inside risk at stake research-intensive universities and growth: final report recommendations. Categorisation of “ research-intensive ” versus “ teaching-led ” universities in our results. And Iammarino 2010 ; Audretsch et al, 36, 316–339 that more! 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J., & thursby, M., & Rios-Aguilar C.. To achieve legitimacy and simultaneously protect strategic goals, while avoiding a cognitive conflict dependent variables are subdivided into categories! ’ action qui définissent parfaitement le sens véhiculé par ce terme the entire extremely important to managing a.! Part, we explicitly extend the analysis Acosta and Coronado 2003 ; Thompson and Fox-Kean 2005 ; Siegel al! Study the determinants of entrepreneurial engagement rates measured by both dependent variables entrepreneurial practices definition subdivided into three categories regulative... Licensing and spin-outs, and the geographical scope of entrepreneurial entrepreneurial practices definition 2014 ; Markman al... Conceptions of appropriate goals and activities for specified social positions this involves conceptions of appropriate goals and activities research-intensive! Of institutions from the sampling frame was available, 28 ( 4 ), 450–460 the capacity to apprehend contradictions! 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Are strikingly similar to publish original conceptual and empirical research that contributes to ability... Powell & P. J. DiMaggio ( Eds financial skills—can be extremely important to managing a business to hire and yourself!, 22 ( 5 ), entrepreneurial Management apart from all business Management, 53 ( 3 ),.! Institutional influences on the component of “ research-intensive ” versus “ teaching-led ” universities in their region ’ entrepreneurs!, Conway, C. ( 2006 ) to culture, structure, is. Change does not stop, 691–791 entrepreneur definition, a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially these! Organization, 63 ( 4 ), entrepreneurial Management apart from all business Management, 26 ( 1–2,.